MIC-1 stem cells studies
Cells from the growing antler of deer and antlerogenic cells examination in electron microscopic
Ultrastructural examination of cultured cells and cells from the growing antler have confirmed their morphological similarity. Both electronographies (fig. 1, 2) show cells with a large nucleus with a loose, active chromatin and nucleoli.
A small amount of surrounding the nucleus cytoplasm contains extensive rough endoplasmic reticula, mitochondria and vacuole. Presence of glycogen granules likens the said cells to embryonic cells. Surface of the cells is covered with a limited amount of cilia.
Fig. 1 Cell of the growing antler (chondroblast), nucleus contains loose transcriptively active chromatin (↑), numerous mitochondria in cytoplasm (*), rough endoplasmic reticula tubules (■). Cell membrane forms a small amount of short microvilli. Large amounts of collagen seen extracellularly. (↑↑).
Fig. 2 Udifferentiated cultured antler bone cell, nucleus contains loose transcriptively active chromatin (↑) and nucleoli (↑↑). Rough endoplasmic reticula present in cytoplasm (■) and mitochondria (*). Cell membrane forms a small amount of short microvilli.
EM × 15000
Microscopic and immunocytochemical studies
Among the cells in culture and microculture respectively, some oval and undifferentiated cells are observed (fig. 9). Peculiar, positive membrane reaction with c-Kit and Thy-1 antibodies occured only in small, oval, frequently dividing cells (fig. 3,4).
Fig. 3. Microculture: undifferentiated, small, oval MIC-1 stem cells (↑) and more mature cells forming microvilli, H+E, × 200
Fig. 4. Microculture: membrane peculiar immunocytochemical reaction with c-Kit antibody (↑) in undifferentiated, small, oval MIC-1 stem cells, × 400
Fig. 5. Microculture: membrane peculiar immunocytochemical reaction with Thy 1 antibody (↑) in undifferentiated, small, oval MIC-1 stem cells, × 400
MIC-1 stem cells marked by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) used for regeneration of damaged cartilage and bone tissue